Patients' Information


acidity acidity
"Dyspepsia", generally referred to as "Acidity"

“Dyspepsia”, generally referred to as “Acidity” is a very common symptom affecting the larger population in the India. It is the 4th ranking symptom presenting for the diagnosis to gastroenterologists.

Surveys in western societies have recorded prevalence between 21 to 45%. In the United Kingdom, it has been estimated that approximately 40% of the population will, at some time, have dyspepsia, about 20% of the population used medications for symptom r elief and 2% lost time from work because of dyspepsia.

A multi-centric study from India has reported the prevalence of dyspeptic symptoms to be as high as 49 %.


  • Heartburn
  • Regurgitation
  • Early satiety
  • Bad test in the mouth
  • Post prandial fullness

Alarm features

  • Age > 50 year, with new onset symptoms
  • Family history of upper-GI malignancy
  • Unintended weight loss
  • GI bleeding or iron deficiency anemia
  • Progressive difficulty in swallowing
  • Pain while swallowing
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Jaundice

Precipitating factors

  • Dietary indiscretion (high fat, caffeine)
  • Analgesic abuse
  • Some prescription medications (ASA, Calcium channel blockers, bisphosphonates)
  • Excessive alcohol use
  • Smoking

Dyspepsia and H.Pylori

Prevalence of H.Pylori is high in the developing countries. Approximately 80% of Indian population has antibodies against H.Pylori in their sera. Dyspeptic symptoms score are generally significantly higher in patients infected with H.Pylori and it improves with anti-H.Pylori treatment.

Complications, if untreated

  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Stomach and duodenal perforation
  • Gastric outlet obstruction
  • Malignancy


  • Patients with dyspepsia who are older than 50 years of age and/or those with alarm features should undergo endoscopic evaluation.
  • Patients with dyspepsia who are younger than 50 years of age and without alarm features may undergo an initial test-and-treat approach for H. pylori.
  • Patients who are younger than 50 years of age and are H. pylori negative can be offered an initial endoscopy or a short trial of PPI acid suppression.
  • Patients with dyspepsia who do not respond to empiric PPI therapy or have recurrent symptoms after an adequate trial should undergo endoscopy.
Carcinoma Stomach

carcinoma stomach

Gastric malignancies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world.

Globally, it is the second commonest site of cancer second only to lung in male accounting for 7.36 million deaths worldwide.

China leads with age adjusted incidence rate of 145.4 followed by USA with 43.4 in population based cancer registry worldwide.

National Cancer Registry Program by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) states that stomach cancer occupies the leading site (9.1%) in Chennai, fourth leading site (6.4%) in Bangalore, and fifth (5.4%) in Dibrugarh. In Kolkata, it is the ninth leading cause of cancer (3.88% of all sites).


  • Significant weight loss
  • Discomfort or abdominal pain in upper abdomen
  • Vomiting
  • Early satiety or feeling of full or bloated after small meal
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Blood in vomitus
  • Blood in stool or black colored stool

Risk factors

  • Family history of carcinoma stomach
  • Long term inflammation of the stomach
  • H.Pylori infection
  • Previous stomach surgery
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Diet high in smoked food, salted food and pickled
  • Lack of physical activity
  • obesity


  • Upper GI Endoscopy- it’s a safe and short day care procedure in which a flexible lighted tube is passed to look in to the stomach and initial part of small intestine
  • Biopsy- when some suspicious tumor or lesion is found on endoscopy , the tissue can be taken with a forcep for tissue biopsy


to look for how much the cancer has spread in stomach, to surrounding structures and other organs to plan best line of management

  • Endosonography (EUS) - EUS uses the high frequency ultra sound waves to detect the smallest lesion in the wall of stomach or other organs. This is the most accurate modality for detecting early cancer as well as smallest nodes which can be missed by conventional imaging.
  • CT Scan
  • Chest X-Ray
  • Laparoscopy


  • Diet high in fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Avoid smoking, alcohol and tobacco
  • Avoid eating smoked, salted, pickled and fermented food


  • Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)- minimal invasive endoscopic treatment of early stomach cancer
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Palliation


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by two major disorders, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Genetics and environmental factors are considered in the patho physiology of these multi factorial disorders.

Due to the effect of both genetic and environmental factors on the etiology of IBD, variations exist in the epidemiology an incidence of these disorders worldwide.

Ulcerative Colitis

The highest annual incidence rate is 24.3 per 100,000 person-years in Europe compared to 6.3 per 100,000 person-years in Asia and the Middle East.

Crohn’s Disease

The highest annual incidence is 20.2% per 100,000 person-years in North America in contrast to 5 person-years in Asia and the Middle East.

Both incidence and prevalence of CD and UC is increasing over time, in both Western and developing societies.


IBD symptoms vary from person to person - and usually over time. IBD is a chronic (long term) disease and if you have IBD you will probably have periods of good health (remission) and then relapses or 'flare-ups' when the symptoms get worse.

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea (sometimes mixed with blood, especially in ulcerative colitis)
  • Generalized weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Swollen joints, mouth ulcers and eye problems

Complications, if untreated

  • Hemorrhage- profuse bleeding from ulcers
  • Bowel perforation
  • Strictures and obstruction (narrowing of the bowels)
  • Fistulas and perianal disease
  • Toxic mega-colon (excessive dilation of the colon)
  • Malignancy
  • Arthritis
  • Eye disorders- iritis, uveitis, episcleritis
  • Mood disorders- anxiety and depression
  • Liver disorders- non alcoholic fatty liver disease

Risk factors

  • Age - Most people who develop IBD are diagnosed before they're 30 years old. But some people don't develop the disease until their 50s or 60s
  • Race or ethnicity - Although whites have the highest risk of the disease, it can occur in any race. If you're of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, your risk is even higher
  • Family history - You're at higher risk if you have a close relative — such as a parent, sibling or child — with the disease
  • Cigarette smoking - Cigarette smoking is the most important controllable risk factor for developing Crohn's disease. However, smoking may provide some protection against ulcerative colitis. The overall health benefits of not smoking make it important to try to quit
  • Isotretinoin use - may be a risk factor for IBD, but a clear association between IBD and isotretinoin has not been established
  • Non steroidal anti-inflammatory medications - These medications may increase the risk of developing IBD or worsen disease in people who have IBD
  • Where you live - If you live in an urban area or in an industrialized country, you're more likely to develop IBD. Therefore, it may be that environmental factors, including a diet high in fat or refined foods, play a role. People living in northern climates also seem to be at greater risk


  • Ileo-colonoscopy is strongly recommended for evaluation of IBD and differentiating ulcerative colitis from crohn’s disease and other diseases causing similar symptoms
  • Mucosal biopsy specimens are important to diagnose and differentiate between the causes of such symptoms
  • Colorectal cancer risk is increased in both ulcerative colitis and extensive Crohn’s colitis and surveillance colonoscopy with multiple biopsies should be performed every 1 to 2 years
Colon Cancer

colon cancer

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. It accounts for over 9% of all cancer incidences. It is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of death. Worldwide, colorectal cancer represents 9.4% of all incident cancer in men and 10.1% in women.

Bowel cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the UK, after breast, lung and prostate cancers. Around 40,700 people are diagnosed with the disease each year. In the United States, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosis among men and women. It ranges from more than 40 per 100,000 people in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Western Europe to less than 5 per 100,000 in Africa and some parts of Asia

Worldwide mortality attributable to colorectal cancer is approximately half that of the incidence. It is estimated that 394,000 deaths from colorectal cancer still occur worldwide annually.

Colorectal cancer incidence is influenced by improved diagnostic techniques and screening programs. When bowel cancer is caught at the earliest stage, more than nine in 10 people will survive for more than five years.

Colorectal cancer survival is highly dependent upon stage of disease at diagnosis, and typically ranges from a 90% 5-year survival rate for cancers detected at the localized stage; 70% for regional; to 10% for people diagnosed for distant metastatic cancer.

Risk factors

  • Age – the likelihood of diagnosis of colorectal cancer increases after the age of 50
  • Personal history of adenomatous polyp- tubular and villous adenoma is precursor lesions for development of colon cancer
  • Personal history of inflammatory bowel disease- the relative risk for increase in colon cancer is 4 – 20 folds
  • Family history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps- up to 20% of people who develop colorectal cancer have other family members who have been affected by this disease
  • Inherited genetic risk- Approximately 5 to 10% of colorectal cancers are a consequence of recognized hereditary conditions
  • Environmental risk factors- include a wide range of often ill-defined cultural, social, and lifestyle factors
  • Nutritional practices- Diets high in fat (especially animal fat), diet low in fruits and vegetables are a major risk factor for colorectal cancer
  • Physical activity and obesity- physical inactivity and excess body weight
  • Cigarette smoking- 12% of colorectal cancer deaths are attributed to smoking
  • Heavy alcohol consumption- regular consumption of alcohol may be associated with increased risk of developing colorectal cancer


  • Colonoscopy
  • FOBT (fecal occult blood test)

Screening Guidelines

  • If you don’t have an increased risk of colorectal cancer because of your personal or family medical history, we recommend screening tests, beginning at age 45
  • Colonoscopy every 10 years
  • A yearly test for blood in the stool every five years
  • If you have an increased risk of colorectal cancer because of your personal or family medical history,
  • You should have a colonoscopy every 5 years beginning at age 40, or younger if hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is suspected.
  • For first-degree, direct relatives of patients with colorectal cancer that has presented before age 50
  • Screening should begin 10 to 20 years before the age of the diagnosed patient. For example, if your father is diagnosed with colorectal cancer at age 48, then you should begin your own colorectal cancer screening between ages 28 and 38



The incidence of constipation is over 10% worldwide and over 15% in India.

In Western society constipation probably occurs more than in other cultures – one in six people. It is estimated that as many as one young woman in every 12 suffers with constipation, mainly in their late teens to 20s.

Constipation is more frequent in individuals 65 years of age or older. Elderly people report problems with constipation five times more frequently than younger people.

In the elderly, up to 50% self-report constipation and up to 74% use laxatives daily.

Around 2% of the population suffers recurrent and constant constipation and is more common in women than in men.


Functional problems

  • Medications- side effect of wide variety of prescribed and over the counter drugs (few examples- codeine, iron tablets)
  • Pregnancy and after child birth- the gut slows down in the pregnancy due to hormonal changes
  • Following an operation- the painkillers given after surgery often causes constipation by slowing down the bowel. Food intake may also be erratic or even non-existent. Some major pelvic operations can lead to damage of the pelvic nerves
  • Eating disorders- patients who fail to eat regularly cannot expect a regular bowel action
  • Life style and bowel habits- People sometimes feel unable to open their bowels at school or in their workplaces. Over the years, their gastrointestinal tract gradually slows down and they become constipated
  • Psychological disturbances
  • Sexual and physical abuse- mostly during childhood
  • Fear of pain while passing stool

Anatomical problems

  • Rectocoele- bulging of rectum
  • Hirschsprung’s disease
  • Mega colon or mega rectum- large dilated colon
  • Nerve disease or injury


  • Rectal prolapsed
  • Fecal impaction

Investigations for diagnosing the cause of constipation

  • Ileo-colonoscopy- evaluation of cause for symptoms on the bowel lining
  • Ano rectal physiological testing- this test takes about 15 minutes and looks at the way the muscles and nerves of the rectum and anus are working
  • Transit studies
  • Dynamic MRI defaecography
  • Defaecating proctography

Treatment options

  • Lifestyle modifications
  • Dietary modifications
  • Medications
  • Biofeedback
  • Surgery- a rare sub set of patient require surgery



Diarrhea is the passage of 3 or more loose or liquid stools per day, or more frequently than is normal for the individual

Disease Problem

It has been estimated that in any given 24 hr period, 200 million people on earth have gastroenteritis

Estimated incidences in industrialized countries are 0.6 episodes per immuno-competent adult per year. Based on ratios between adults and children, estimated incidence in developing countries is 1.0-1.5 episodes per immuno-competent adult per year

Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old, and is responsible for killing around 760 000 children every year


There are many causes. Diarrhea often is caused by an infection with bacteria, viruses or a parasite. Bacteria cause diarrhea either by invading the intestine or by producing a toxin that makes the intestine secrete more water. When the diarrhea is caused by food contaminated with bacteria or parasites, people often refer to this as food poisoning

Other causes of diarrhea include:

  • Irritable bowel syndrome, especially during times of increased stress
  • Side effects from medications, such as antibiotics and magnesium-containing antacids
  • Overuse of laxatives
  • Inflammation of the intestine (ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease)


People with diarrhea usually have loose, watery stools. Less commonly, people pass frequent, small amounts of loose stool with mucous and blood.
Other symptoms can include:

  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Bloody stools
  • Lack of bowel control

Frequent vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration (abnormally low levels of body water) if too much fluid is lost from the body.
Signs of dehydration include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Thirst
  • Dry eyes
  • Infrequent urination


  • Detailed history and complete physical examination is necessary to rule out the cause of diarrhea
  • Stool routine and microscopic examination
  • Ileo-colonoscopy
Hiatus Hernia

hiatus hernia

Hiatus hernias affect anywhere from 1 to 20% of the population. Of these, 9% are symptomatic, depending on the competence of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).

People of all ages can get this condition, but it is more common in older people.

Types of Hiatus Hernia

1. Sliding Hiatus Hernia

95% of hiatus hernia is "sliding" hiatus hernias, in which the LES protrudes above the diaphragm along with the stomach.

2. Rolling or Paraesophageal Hiatus Hernia

Only 5% of the hiatus hernia is the "rolling" type (paraesophageal), in which the LES remains stationary but the stomach protrudes above the diaphragm.


- In most patients, hiatus hernia cause no symptoms

  • Heart Burn
  • Regurgitation
  • Bleeding and Anemia
  • Difficulty in Swallowing
  • Chronic Cough
  • Wheezing
  • Pneumonia

Who is at risk for development of hiatus hernia?

  • Old People
  • Pregnancy
  • Chronic Cough
  • Chronic Vomiting
  • Chronic Constipation
  • Low Fiber Diet
  • Obesity
  • Ascites
  • Chronic Esophagitis

Red flag signs- When to seek urgent medical care?

  • Blood in vomiting
  • Black colored stool
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Severe chest pain


  • Upper GI Endoscopy- During this procedure, after you are sedated, an endoscope which is a thin, flexible, lighted tube was passed down your throat to check for any abnormality
  • High resolution manometry
  • PH Testing


  • Treatment of ascites, chronic cough, vomiting and constipation
  • Healthy diet, avoid western fiber depleted diet
  • Control weight

Treatment options

1. Lifestyle modifications

  • Eating smaller, more frequent meals rather than three large meals a day
  • Avoiding lying down (including going to bed) for three hours after eating or drinking
  • Removing any foods or drinks that make your symptoms worse from your diet
  • Control your weight

2. Medications

3. Surgery

  • Only reserved for emergency situations and in patients who aren’t helped by medication and life style modifications


Jaundice is described as a yellowish discoloration of urine, eyes and skin


  • Yellowing of the skin, eyes and mucus membrane (the lining of the body's passageways and cavities, such as the mouth and nose)
  • Pale-colored stools (feces)
  • Dark-colored urine


  • Anorexia
  • Fever
  • Pain in abdomen
  • Generalized weakness
  • Generalized itching
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss

Types of Jaundice

1. Pre Hepatic Causes

- the disruption occurs before the bilirubin has been transported from the blood to the liver

  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Hereditary spherocytosis
  • Thalassemia
  • G6PD deficiency
  • Drugs or other toxins
  • Auto immune disorders

2. Intra Hepatic Causes (Hepato Cellular Jaundice)

- the disruption occurs inside the liver

  • Acute or chronic hepatitis
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis of liver
  • Crigler-Najjar syndrome
  • Gilbert’s syndrome
  • Liver cancer
  • Drugs or other toxins
  • Auto immune disorders

3. Post Hepatic Jaundice (Obstructive Jaundice)

- the disruption prevents the bile (and the bilirubin inside it) from draining out of the gallbladder and into the digestive system

  • Common bile duct stones
  • Cancer (gall bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, CBD cancer)
  • Bile duct strictures
  • Cholangitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Parasitic infections


1. Biochemical Investigations - complete blood counts, liver function tests, tumor markers, electrolytes etc

2. Endosonography (EUS)

  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) combines endoscopy and US to provide remarkably detailed images of the pancreas and biliary tree
  • It uses higher frequency ultrasonic waves compared to traditional US and allows diagnostic tissue sampling via EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration
  • Endoscopic ultra sonography overcomes the limitation of evaluation of distal CBD by trans- abdominal sonography. It is very accurate in diagnosing CBD calculi with an overall accuracy of 96% as compared with 63% sensitivity of trans abdominal sonography esp. with small calculi or calculi with non-dilated biliary system
  • It also picks up small resectable pancreato-biliary mass with high sensitivity (93-100%)

3. CT Abdomen


Complications of jaundice, if not treated

  • Electrolyte imbalances
  • Anemia
  • Bleeding
  • Infection / Sepsis
  • Chronic hepatitis
  • Cancer
  • Liver failure
  • Kidney failure
  • Brain dysfunction
  • Death

Role of Endoscopy

  • Diagnosis can be made and provides information regarding plan of further management
  • Biliary stone disease can be cured in the same sitting
  • Safe, cheap, pain less day care procedure

Anaemia means that you have fewer red blood cells than normal, OR you have less hemoglobin than normal in each red blood cell. In either case, a reduced amount of oxygen is carried around in the bloodstream.

It is extremely prevalent in the Indian population and the incidence is said to be 27% of the adult population and 195 of pediatric group.


  • Tiredness, lethargy
  • Feeling faint, and becoming easily breathless
  • Headaches, a thumping heart (palpitations)
  • Altered taste
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
  • You may look pale
  • Various other symptoms may develop, depending on the underlying cause of the anaemia

When to seek urgent medical attention

  • Vomiting containing blood
  • Passage of black tarry stool
  • Recurrent fainting episodes with chronic anemia


  • Pregnancy or childhood growth spurts are times when you need more iron than usual. The amount of iron that you eat during these times may not be enough.
  • Heavy menstrual periods. The amount of iron that you eat may not be enough to replace the amount that you lose with the bleeding each month.
  • Poor absorption of iron may occur with some gut diseases - for example, celiac disease and Crohn's disease.
  • Bleeding from the gut (intestines). Some conditions of the gut can bleed enough to cause anaemia. You may not be aware of losing blood this way. The bleeding may be slow or intermittent, and you can pass blood out with your stools (feces) without noticing.
  • Lack of certain vitamins such as folic acid and vitamin B12.
  • Red blood cell problems such as thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia and other causes of hemolytic anaemia. In these conditions the red cells are fragile and break easily in the bloodstream.
  • Bone marrow problems and leukemia are uncommon, but can cause anaemia.
  • Chronic kidney disease can also cause anaemia.


  • Complete blood count
  • Stool for occult blood
  • Peripheral smear examination
  • Other Biochemical tests
  • Upper GI endoscopy
  • Lower GI endoscopy
  • Small bowel Enteroscopy
  • Capsule endoscopy


  • Conservative medical management
  • Tailored treatment according to the underlying cause
Carcinoma Pancreas

Pancreatic cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world and its incidences are rising in India. Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of death in United States and approximately 30000 pancreatic cancers are diagnosed per year with an incidence rate of 9 cases per 100000 people.

The incidence rate of pancreatic cancer in India is low (0.5 to 2.4 cases per 100000 people). The incidence of pancreatic cancer is higher in urban male populations of western and northern parts of India.

Risk factors

  • Age – 20 times higher risk for individuals older than 50 years
  • Smoking – tobacco smoking contributes to 20 to 30 % of all pancreatic cancers
  • Diabetes mellitus – presence of DM, chronic cirrhosis, pancreatitis and fatty diet has a synergistic effect in development of pancreatic cancer
  • Obesity and lack of physical exercise
  • Occupational hazards
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Miscellaneous


  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Dark colored urine
  • Clay colored stool
  • Generalized itching
  • Nausea/Anorexia
  • Vomiting
  • Early onset diabetes or uncontrolled diabetes


  • Biochemical investigations and tumor markers
  • EUS and guided FNA
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • FDG- PET Scan


  • Surgery
  • Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy
  • Endoscopic palliation
  • Supportive medical care

Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. There are a number of things that can cause hepatitis. For example, drinking too much alcohol, various drugs and chemicals, and also several different viruses like hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G.

What does the liver do?

  • Storing glycogen (fuel for the body) which is made from sugars. When required, glycogen is broken down into glucose which is released into the bloodstream
  • Helping to process fats and proteins from digested food
  • Making proteins that are essential for blood to clot (clotting factors)
  • Processing many medicines which you may take
  • Helping to remove or process alcohol, poisons and toxins from the body
  • Making bile which passes from the liver to the gut down the bile duct. Bile breaks down the fats in food so that they can be absorbed from the bowel


  • Flu-like symptoms. For example, general aches and pains and headaches. (These are the most common symptoms.)
  • Tiredness, feeling sick, sometimes being sick (vomiting) and diarrhea
  • An ache over your liver (the upper part of the right side of your tummy (abdomen) below your ribs)


  • The doctor performs a liver profile along serological testing of various viruses and a battery of blood tests to rule out other related conditions
  • An ultrasound of the liver is carried out too


Hepatitis B, C and D are transmitted via sexual contact, blood transfusion, sharing of needles or vertically to the offspring from the mother.

Prevention of hepatitis A, E, G

  • Raw or inadequately cooked shellfish
  • Raw salads and vegetables that may have been washed in dirty (contaminated) water. (Wash fruits and vegetables in safe water and peel them yourself.)
  • Other foods that may have been grown close to the ground such as strawberries
  • Untreated drinking water, including ice cubes made from untreated water. (Remember also to use only treated or bottled water when brushing your teeth.)
  • Unpasteurized milk, cheese, ice cream and other dairy products

Stone diseases can be divided in to three categories for better understanding as far as the gastro-intestinal tract is concerned.

1. Gall Bladder Stones
2. Common Bile Duct Stones
3. Pancreatic Stones

Gallbladdder stone 1. Gall Bladder Stones

Gall bladder stone disease is increasing dramatically.

In Japan, prevalence of gall bladder stone disease has been increased to double in last fifty years.

Highest prevalence of gall bladder stone disease was noted among Native American Indians of Arizona, incidence of as high as 73% was noted among females at the age of 30.

In US, the prevalence of gall stone disease is ranging from 5.9 to 21.9 %.

In India, the prevalence of gall bladder stone disease is up to 6.12 %, with Chandigarh and Delhi having the highest number of gall stone disease. The prevalence for development of gall stone disease is increased progressively to reach a peak in the sixth decade.


  • Asymptomatic gall stone disease- patient may not have symptoms as long as 15-20 years. But approximately 20% of them develop symptoms by 15 years
  • Abdominal colicky pain over right upper abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Jaundice

Risk factors

  • Age – peak in 40-60 years
  • Gender- females are more prone M:F-1:2
  • Nationality – North India, Scandinavia, Northern Europe, Chile
  • Race/Ethnicity- PIMA Indians of south Africa, native American tribes, Alaskans
  • Family history- high risk in first degree relatives of gall stone patients
  • Obesity
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Multi parity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Bowel diseases
  • Total parenteral nutrition
  • Spinal cord injuries


  • Pancreatitis
  • Fistula between gall bladder wall and bowel
  • Gall bladder perforation
  • Gall stone ileus- gall bladder stone may pass in to the bowel causing obstruction
  • Mirizzi syndrome
  • Emphysematous cholecystitis
  • Gangrene of gall bladder
  • Choledocholithiasis- gall bladder stones may pass in to CBD causing jaundice and infection
  • Porcelain gall bladder
  • Gall bladder carcinoma


  • Trans abdominal sonography
  • Endoscopic ultra sonography- a novel non invasive modality for diagnosis of pancreato-biliary disorders, which is safe, accurate and less time consuming
  • CT scan
  • MRCP
  • HIDA Scan
  • Biochemical and other investigations


  • Medical management- not much role
  • Open cholecystectomy
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  • EUS guided cholecysto-duodenostomy:- needs further clinical studies and FDA approval

2. Common Bile Duct stones

Bile duct stones are present in approximately 7-12 % of patients with gall bladder stones.

Common bile duct stones may be due to slippage of gall bladder stones in to the CBD or they can form de novo.


  • Abdominal colicky pain
  • Fever
  • Jaundice
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Disorientation

Risk factors

  • Obesity
  • Low fiber, high calorie, high fat diet
  • Pregnancy
  • Prolonged fasting
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Lack of physical activity


  • Pancreatitis
  • Mirizzi syndrome
  • Cholangitis


  • Trans abdominal sonography
  • EUS- a novel non invasive modality for diagnosis of pancreato-biliary disorders, which is safe, accurate and less time consuming
  • CT Abdomen
  • MRCP
  • Biochemical and other investigations


  • ERCP- gold standard treatment for management of CBD stone. Minimal invasive, safe and day care procedure in expert’s hand
  • Laparoscopic CBD exploration
  • Open CBD exploration
  • ESWL

3. Pancreatic duct stones

A pancreatic duct stone disease was supposed to be rare disease but the incidence of the disease has been shown to rise recently, especially in western countries.

Pancreatic duct stones are found in 20-60% of the patients with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic duct stones usually results from chronic inflammation and altered metabolism.


  • Upper abdominal pain- radiating to back, pain increased after having food
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Oily, fatty stools
  • Weight loss
  • Indigestion

Risk factors

  • Alcohol
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Genetic
  • Autoimmune
  • Unknown


  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Chronic pancreatitis- pancreatic ascites, pseudocyst of pancreas
  • Diabetes
  • Malignancy


  • EUS- it helps in mapping of pancreas and plan further line of management. It helps in evaluation of ductal and parenchymal disorders
  • MRCP
  • CT Abdomen
  • Trans abdominal sonography
  • Biochemical and other investigations


  • Medical management
  • Lifestyle and dietary changes
  • ERCP- gold standard treatment for pancreatic ductal stones which is safe, pain free, less time consuming, minimal invasive and less morbidity compared to surgery
  • ESWL
  • Open surgery
  • Laparoscopic surgery

Peptic ulcer is known as a disease due to hurry, worry and curry.

The term peptic ulcer disease generally refers to spectrum of disorders that includes gastric ulcer, pyloric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer and post operative ulcers at or near the site of surgical anastomosis.

Peptic ulcer is a term used to describe, “Any localized erosion of the mucosal lining of the portion of the alimentary tract that come in contact with the gastric juice.

Epidemiology - Scenario in India
Peptic ulcer occurs in approximately 10% of the population. Higher incidence of the peptic ulcer cases were observed among people in between the age of 30 – 60 years.

Gastric ulcers are more likely to occur during the fifth and sixth decades of life. Duodenal ulcers are more commonly occur during the fourth and fifth decades for men.

The prevalence in children is around 0.5% in industrialized nations.

Approximately 25 million Indians are suffering from peptic ulcer disease at some point in their life time. Duodenal ulcers are 5 to 10 times more common than gastric ulcers. The incidence for duodenal ulcer is 30 to 60 years. The male and female ratio is 3:1. The incidence of gastric ulcer is usually 50 and over. It affect male and female in the ratio of 2:1. Each year there are 500,000 to 850,000 new cases of peptic ulcer disease and more than 1 million ulcer related hospitalizations.

An endoscopic and epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in the general population by Institute of Medical Sciences, India. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer was 4.72% and the life time prevalence was 11.22%. The prevalence of peptic ulcer increased with age, with a peak prevalence of 28.8% in the fifth decade of life. Peptic ulcer was not related to socio economic status.

Risk factors/causes

  • Excessive use of pain killer drugs
  • Excessive drinking of alcohol
  • Smoking or tobacco chewing
  • Smoking or tobacco chewing
  • Excessive tea or coffee intake
  • Binge diet
  • H.Pylori infection
  • Excessive acid production by stomach tumors
  • Serious illness
  • Radiation therapy to that area
  • Physical and emotional stress


  • Burning like sensation or pain in the middle or upper abdomen
  • Abdominal bloating sensation
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Reflux of food or acid in the mouth
  • Bad taste in mouth
  • Black colored stools
  • Weight loss

Red Flag Sign - When to Seek Urgent Medical Care

  • Vomiting of blood or dark coffee ground color
  • Passing black tar like stools
  • Significant weight loss

Complications, if not treated

  • Bleeding
  • Perforation
  • Gastric outlet obstruction
  • Malignancy


  • Upper GI endoscopy and biopsy
  • Urea breath test for detection of H.Pylori
  • Stool antigen test for H.Pylori
  • Blood test to look for antibodies to H.Pylori
  • 24 hour PH test
  • High resolution manometry


  • Dietary modifications
  • Life style modifications


  • Life style and dietary management
  • Medications
  • Surgery